This video is created to summarise the understanding of cancer stem cell biology. I have talked about history of the discovery of cancer stem cells, the current excitement in the field and the avenue of future research. Grad and undergrad Students can watch this video as introductory lecture.
Link : https://youtu.be/N3fLKbOULDU
Recent Research Highlights:
Two novel oral cancer cell lines established from Indian patients having no risk-habits of tobacco smoking or chewing:
We have reported the establishment of two novel oral cancer cell lines from primary tumor samples. (https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1cKSG4tFDI9ouA). These two cell lines are among very few oral cancer cell lines which are established from India and first reported cell lines in the world which are from buccal mucosal oral cancer patients who were not having the risk habit of tobacco usage. These cell lines are comprehensively characterized for the genomic perturbations and their functions related to aggressive cancer behaviours including cell proliferation, migration, drug sensitivity, stemness and tumor formation. Using these primary cultures derived from tumor samples, we have generated the method to enrich cancer cells with stem cell like activity. Using this methodology we are screening anti-cancer stem cell drug in collaboration with IISER-Kolkata (DOI: 10.1039/d0cc00472c). Further, these cell cultures are serving as valuable resource for testing our hypothesis related to functions of genetic and molecular changes identified in large scale genomic studies of ICGC and TCGA. Overall, towards making the precision medicine a reality for oral cancer patients; these cell culture models are creating an avenue to move forward and I am eager to collaborate.
Kavya Vipparthi et. al. Two novel cell culture models of buccal mucosal oral cancer from patients with no risk-habits of tobacco smoking or chewing. Oral Oncology, Volume 113, 2021, 105131. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2020.105131)
Despite the improvement in the standard treatment strategies, the 5-years survival rate for oral cancer patients has remained around 50% since decades. Patients frequently show resistance to the given treatment or local recurrence. With the framework of stem cell biology of cancer, we have carried out in-depth investigations on oral tumor biology emphasizing on gingivobuccal oral cancer. Our work has revealed the surprising diversity among fibroblast within the microenvironment of oral tumor as responsible factor for differences in stemness of oral cancer cells. Study suggests that myofibroblast differentiation of stromal-fibroblast provide more conducive environment for aggressive self-renewal of oral-cancer stem cells through differential expression of certain genes. By discovering the CAFs-mediated mechanisms which might restrain cancer cells to a less-aggressive state, our work has provided an opportunity for prognostic classification of patients, who might get better response to the given treatment as well as opened an avenue for targeting tumor-stroma interactions in aggressive tumors.
Patel AK, Vipparthi K, Thatikonda V, Arun I, Bhattacharjee S, Sharan R, Arun P, Singh S. A subtype of cancer-associated fibroblasts with lower expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin suppresses stemness through BMP4 in oral carcinoma. Oncogenesis. 2018 Oct 5;7(10):78